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Friday, June 9, 2017

Hip Dysplasia in Dogs, diagnoses, causes and treatment

Hip Dysplasia in Dogs is a disease of the hip in which the ball and socket joint is malformed. This malformation means that the ball portion and its socket don't properly meet one another, resulting in a joint that rubs and grinds instead of sliding smoothly.




Hip Dysplasia in Dogs

Hip dysplasia often begins while a dog is physically immature and still young. Early onset usually develops after four months of age. There are also cases of later onset, where hip dysplasia develops later due to osteoarthritis, a form of joint inflammation (arthritis) that is characterized by chronic deterioration, or degeneration of the joint cartilage.

The hip joint is composed of the socket and the ball. The development of hip dysplasia is determined by an interaction of environmental and genetic factors, though there is a complicated pattern of inheritance for this disorder, with multiple genes involved. Hip dysplasia is the failure of the hip joints to develop normally (known as malformation), gradually leading and deteriorating to loss of function of the hip joints.

Hip dysplasia is one of the most common skeletal diseases seen in dogs. Gender does not seem to be a factor, but some breeds are more likely to have the genetic predisposition for hip dysplasia than other breeds.

Types and symptoms

Symptoms depend on the degree of joint looseness or laxity, the degree of joint inflammation, and the duration of the disease.
  • Early disease: signs are related to joint looseness or laxity
  • Later disease: signs are related to joint degeneration and osteoarthritis
  • Decreased activity
  • Difficulty rising
  • Reluctance to run, jump, or climb stairs
If your dog has been effectively diagnosed with hip dysplasia, it should not be bred out, and the dam and sire (the parents) of your pet should not be bred again since this condition is often acquired genetically. Special diets designed for rapidly-growing large-breed dogs may decrease the severity of hip dysplasia.



The juvenile pubic symphysiodesis surgery is performed on dogs that are younger than six months, fusing part of the pelvis together to improve hip joint stability. Most dogs will handle this type of surgery, with acceptable hip function after the recovery period. In this surgery the ball of the hip joint is removed, leaving muscles to act as the joint.

Hip dysplasia is the failure of the hip joints to develop normally (known as malformation), gradually leading and deteriorating to loss of function of the hip joints.

Diagnosis.

X-rays are crucial for visualizing the signs of hip dysplasia. Some of the possible findings may be a degenerative disease of the spinal cord, lumbar vertebral instability, bilateral stifle disease and other bone diseases.
  • Genetic susceptibility for hip looseness or laxity.
  • Rapid weight gain and obesity.
  • Nutritional factors.
  • Pelvic-muscle mass.
  • Pain in hip joints.

Treatment.

The juvenile diagnosed with hip dysplasia is performed on dogs that are younger than six months, fusing part of the pelvis together to improve hip joint stability. In this surgery the ball of the hip joint is removed, leaving muscles to act as the joint. If your dog is being treated as an outpatient only, the x-rays may indicate the rate of deterioration in the hip joint.

Causes.

Living and Management.

Joint looseness or laxity-- characteristic of early disease; may not be seen in long-term hip dysplasia due to arthritic changes in the hip joint.

Grating detected with joint movement Decreased range of motion in the hip joints.


Loss of muscle mass in thigh muscles Enlargement of shoulder muscles due to more weight being exerted on front legs as the dog tries to avoid weight on its hips, leading to extra work for the shoulder muscles and subsequent enlargement of these muscles.

Your dog may be treated for hip dysplasia on an outpatient basis as long as it does not require surgery. The decision for whether your dog will undergo surgery will depend on your dog's size, age, and intended function (i.e., whether your dog is a working dog, as many large breeds tend to be).

Your veterinarian may also prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce swelling and inflammation, along with pain medications for lessening the severity of the pain.

Persistent or intermittent hind-limb lameness, often worse after exercise
" Bunny-hopping," or swaying gait Narrow stance in the hind limbs (back legs unnaturally close together).

Your veterinarian will schedule follow-up appointments with you to monitor any changes in your dog's hip dysplasia. If your dog is being treated as an outpatient only, the x-rays may indicate the rate of deterioration in the hip joint.

Influences on the development and progression of hip dysplasia are concurrent with both environmental and genetic factors:.

Inflammation due to joint disease may be noted in the complete blood count. As part of surveying the physical symptoms and fluid work-ups, your veterinarian will also need a thorough history of your dog's health, the onset of symptoms, and any possible incidents or injuries that may have contributed to your dog's symptoms.

Weight control is an important aspect of recovery and is recommended to decrease the pressure applied to the painful joint as the dog moves. You and your veterinarian will need to work together to minimize any weight gain associated with reduced exercise during recovery. Special diets designed for rapidly growing large-breed dogs may decrease the severity of hip dysplasia.

There are also cases of later onset, where hip dysplasia develops later due to osteoarthritis, a form of joint inflammation (arthritis) that is characterized by chronic deterioration, or degeneration of the joint cartilage.

Via: Petmd

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